Common Diseases

Many of the most common diseases and illnesses are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and other pathogens. Breaking out in a rash or toothache can be symptoms to many illnesses.

Common Diseases and Common Illness

1) Infectious disease-over 32,000 people die from infectious diseases in the United States alone every year. These include HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. Several other infections have the potential to be life-threatening, including influenza and dengue fever.

2) Non-infectious disease- more than 750 million people suffer from a non-infectious

Hypertension is a medical condition that occurs when the force of blood against artery walls is elevated, in turn resulting in an increased risk for stroke, heart attack and other circulatory problems. It may also be described as high blood pressure or elevated systolic blood pressure. The highest consumer report with hypertension

Many people are not aware of the difference between chronic and acute conditions, but it can help us understand dig health. With chronic conditions, they usually last for months or years before diagnosis. Acute conditions are generally much more intense and happen in less than a couple days. Certain symptoms will be similar for both, but there is a large distinction. For example, broken bones typically heal within six weeks while asthma typically lasts several years.

It is not uncommon for the body to get sick. Some aches and pains are normal, such as a headache or toothache. Other illness can be more serious such as injury from a fall or cut from a sharp object. Many illnesses are preventable with vaccinations, but some aren’t that easy to avoid

Everyone experiences illness at one point in their life and certain illnesses are more common than others. Many people battle with nasopharyngeal cancer, lupus vulgaris, or chronic fatigue syndrome every year. Some illnesses that used to be preventable by vaccines now infect hundreds of thousands of people each day and can cause severe complications if precautions are not taken appropriately. In the past few years, infectious diseases have spread alarmingly across the globe.

Symptoms of a common illness can vary from person to person and depend on the type of illness, however usually they are similar in how symptoms occur. A cough is an example of one symptom that most people have experienced before. Coughing occurs when the body moves air through small muscles that line the throat and chest area; it starts as an involuntary reaction which can lead to uncontrollable coughing fit. Common illnesses like colds or flu are examples

List of all common diseases and common illness


Abdominal aortic aneurysm
Learn about abdominal aortic aneurysm symptoms and treatments

Learn about acne symptoms and treatments

Acute cholecystitis
Learn about acute cholecystitis symptoms and treatments

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
Learn about acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, a cancer of the white blood cells

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia:

Children Around three out of four childhood leukaemia cases are acute lymphoblastic

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia:

Teenagers and young adults Learn more about acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in young people

Acute myeloid leukaemia
Learn about acute myeloid leukaemia, a cancer of the white blood cells

Acute myeloid leukaemia:

Children Learn more about acute myeloid leukaemia, an overproduction of myeloid white blood cells

Acute myeloid leukaemia:

Teenagers and young adults Information about acute myeloid leukaemia, a type of blood cancer that can affect young people

Acute pancreatitis
Learn about acute pancreatitis symptoms and treatments

Addison’s disease
Learn about Addison’s disease symptoms and treatments

Alcohol-related liver disease
Learn about alcohol-related liver disease symptoms and treatments

Allergic rhinitis
Learn about allergic rhinitis symptoms and treatment

Learn more about allergies and their symptoms and treatments

Alzheimer’s disease
Learn about Alzheimer’s disease symptoms and treatments

Anal cancer
Learn about anal cancer, a cancer that affects the end of the large bowel

Learn about anaphylaxis symptoms and treatments

Learn about angioedema symptoms and treatments

Ankylosing spondylitis
Learn about ankylosing spondylitis

Anorexia nervosa
Learn about anorexia nervosa symptoms and treatments

Learn about the symptoms and treatments of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD)

Anxiety disorders in children
Learn about anxiety disorders in children

Learn about appendicitis symptoms and treatments

Learn about arthritis symptoms and treatments

Learn about asbestosis symptoms and treatments

Learn about asthma symptoms and treatments

Atopic eczema
Learn about atopic eczema symptoms and treatments

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Learn about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and treatments

Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD)
Learn about autism spectrum disorder symptoms and treatments


Bacterial vaginosis
Learn about bacterial vaginosis symptoms and treatments

Benign prostate enlargement
Learn about benign prostate enlargement symptoms and treatments

Bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma)
Learn about cholangiocarcinoma, a rare cancer that can develop in the bile duct

Binge eating
Learn about binge eating causes and effects

Bipolar disorder
Learn about bipolar disorder symptoms and treatments

Bladder cancer
Learn about bladder cancer which can develop in the lining of the bladder

Blood poisoning (sepsis)
Learn about sepsis symptoms and treatments

Bone cancer
Learn about the symptoms and treatments of primary cancer of the bones

Bone cancer:

Teenagers and young adults
Symptoms and treatment information on different types of bone cancer

Bowel cancer
Learn more about bowel cancer, one of the most common types of cancer in the UK

Bowel incontinence
Learn about bowel incontinence causes and treatments

Bowel polyps
Learn about bowel polyps causes and treatments

Brain stem death
Learn about brain stem death and how it’s diagnosed

Brain tumours
Learn about both cancerous and non-cancerous brain tumours

Brain tumours:

Children Read more about brain tumours in children, including signs and symptoms

Brain tumours:

Teenagers and young adults Information on brain tumours in teenagers and young adults

Breast cancer (female)
Learn more about the symptoms and treatments of breast cancer, the most common type of cancer in the UK

Breast cancer (male)
Breast cancer is often thought only to affect women, but men can also develop it

Learn about bronchiectasis symptoms and treatments

Learn about bronchitis symptoms and treatments

Learn about bulimia symptoms and treatments

Learn about bunion symptoms and treatments


Carcinoid syndrome and carcinoid tumours
Learn about carcinoid tumours, and their symptoms known as carcinoid syndrome

Learn about catarrh symptoms and treatment

Learn about cellulitis symptoms and treatments

Cervical cancer
Cervical cancer develops in a woman’s cervix, learn about its symptoms and how it can be prevented

Chest infection
Learn about chest infection symptoms and treatments

Chest pain
What to do if you have chest pain and when to seek help

Learn about chickenpox symptoms and treatments

Learn more about chilblains symptoms and treatment

Chronic fatigue syndrome
Learn about chronic fatigue syndrome symptoms and treatments

Chronic kidney disease
Learn about chronic kidney disease symptoms and treatments

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
Learn about chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, a cancer of the white blood cells

Chronic myeloid leukaemia
Learn about chronic myeloid leukaemia, a cancer of the white blood cells

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Learn more about chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Chronic pancreatitis
Learn about chronic pancreatitis symptoms and treatments

Learn about cirrhosis symptoms and treatment

Clostridium difficile
Learn about clostridium difficile symptoms and treatment

Coeliac disease
Learn about coeliac disease symptoms and treatments

Cold sore
Learn about cold sore symptoms and treatments

Learn what a coma is and the recovery process

Common cold
Learn about common cold symptoms and treatments

Common heart conditions
Some of the conditions and problems that can affect your heart, including angina and heart failure

Congenital heart disease
These are conditions which develop in the womb, find out more about the causes and treatments

Learn about conjunctivitis symptoms and treatments

Learn about constipation symptoms and treatments

Coronavirus (COVID-19)
Latest guidance about COVID-19 from NHS Scotland and the Scottish Government

Learn about cough causes and treatments

Crohn’s disease
Learn about Crohn’s disease symptoms and treatments

Croup is a childhood condition of the windpipe, airways and voice box

Cystic fibrosis
Learn about cystic fibrosis symptoms and treatments

Learn about cystitis symptoms and treatments


Learn about deafblindness symptoms and treatments

Deep vein thrombosis
Learn about deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

Learn about dehydration symptoms and treatment

Learn about dystonia causes and treatment

Dementia with Lewy bodies
Learn about dementia with Lewy bodies

Dental abscess
Learn about dental abscess symptoms and treatments

Learn about depression symptoms, causes, and treatments

Dermatitis herpetiformis
Learn about dermatitis herpetiformis symptoms and treatments

Learn about diabetes symptoms and treatments

Learn about diarrhoea causes and treatments

Discoid eczema
Learn about discoid eczema symptoms and treatments

Diverticular disease and diverticulitis
Diverticular disease and diverticulitis symptoms and treatments

Dizziness (Lightheadedness)
What to do if you feel dizzy or lightheaded and when to seek help

Down’s syndrome
Learn about Down’s syndrome, its causes and living with the condition

Dry mouth
Learn about the causes and treatment of a dry mouth

Dysphagia (swallowing problems)
Learn about dysphagia causes and treatments

Learn about dystonia causes and treatment


Learn about earache symptoms and treatment

Earwax build-up
Learn about earwax build-up symptoms and treatments

Ebola virus disease
Learn about Ebola virus disease symptoms and treatments

Ectopic pregnancy
Learn about ectopic pregnancy symptoms and treatment

Learn about endometriosis symptoms and treatments

Learn about epilepsy symptoms and treatments

Erectile dysfunction (impotence)
Learn about erectile dysfunction causes and treatments

Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157
Learn about escherichia coli O157 symptoms and treatment

Ewing sarcoma
Learn about the symptoms and treatments of Ewing sarcoma, a rare type of bone cancer

Ewing sarcoma:

Children Ewing sarcoma is a type of bone cancer most common in children and young people

Eye cancer
Learn about melanoma of the eye, how it can be detected and its treatments


Febrile seizures
Learn about febrile seizure symptoms and treatment

Fever in children
Learn about fever in children and its causes

Learn about fibroids symptoms and treatments

Learn about fibromyalgia symptoms and treatments

Learn about flatulence causes and treatments

Learn about flu symptoms and treatments

Foetal alcohol syndrome
Learn about foetal alcohol syndrome symptoms and outlook

Food poisoning
Learn about food poisoning symptoms and treatments

Fungal nail infection
Learn about fungal nail infection symptoms and treatments


Gallbladder cancer
Learn about gallbladder cancer, a rare cancer that can develop in the gallbladder, a small organ beneath the liver

Learn about gallstones symptoms and treatments

Ganglion cyst
Learn about ganglion cyst symptoms and treatments

Learn about gastroenteritis symptoms and treatments

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD)
Learn about gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD)

Genital herpes
Learn about genital herpes symptoms and treatments

Genital warts
Learn about genital warts symptoms and treatments

Germ cell tumours
Learn more about germ cell tumours, a type of cancer that can develop in the cells that produce eggs or sperm

Glandular fever
Learn about glandular fever symptoms and treatments

Learn about gout symptoms and treatments

Gum disease
Learn about gum disease symptoms and treatments


Haemorrhoids (piles)
Learn about haemorrhoids symptoms and treatments

Hairy cell leukaemia
Learn about hairy cell leukaemia, a rare type of chronic leukaemia

Hand, foot and mouth disease
Learn about hand, foot and mouth disease

Hay fever
Learn about hay fever symptoms and treatments

Head and neck cancer
Learn about the symptoms and treatments of cancers that can develop in the head and neck

Head lice and nits
Learn about head lice detection and treatment

Learn about the causes and treatment and causes of headaches.

Hearing loss
Learn about hearing loss symptoms and treatments

Heart failure
Learn about heart failure symptoms and treatments

Hepatitis A
Learn more about hepatitis A symptoms and treatments

Hepatitis B
Learn more about hepatitis B symptoms and treatments

Hepatitis C
Learn about hepatitis C symptoms and treatments

Hiatus hernia
Learn about hiatus hernia symptoms and treatments

High cholesterol
Learn about cholesterol, its effects and treating high cholesterol

Learn about HIV symptoms and treatments

Hodgkin lymphoma
Learn about Hodgkin lymphoma, an uncommon cancer that develops in the lymphatic system

Hodgkin lymphoma: Children
Learn more about Hodgkin lymphoma, a type of blood cancer

Hodgkin lymphoma: Teenagers and young adults
Information on Hodgkin lymphoma, a cancer of the lymphatic system, one of the body’s defenses against infection

Huntington’s disease
Learn about Huntington’s disease symptoms and treatments

Hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar)
Learn about hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar)

Learn about hyperhidrosis symptoms and treatments

Hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar)
Learn about hypoglycaemia symptoms and treatment

IIdiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Learn about idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis symptoms and treatments

Learn about impetigo symptoms and treatments

Learn about indigestion symptoms and treatments

Ingrown toenail
Learn about the causes and treatment of an ingrown toenail

Inherited heart conditions
These are passed on through your parents’ gene and cover a wide range of cardiac conditions

Learn about insomnia causes and treatments

Iron deficiency anaemia
Learn about iron deficiency anaemia symptoms and treatments

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
Learn about irritable bowel syndrome symptoms and treatments

Irritable hip
Learn about irritable hip symptoms and treatments

Learn about itching causes and treatments

Itchy bottom
Learn about itchy bottom causes and treatments


Kaposi’s sarcoma
Learn about Kaposi’s sarcoma, a rare type of cancer that affects the skin and internal organs

Kidney cancer
Learn about the symptoms and treatments of kidney cancer, the eighth most common cancer in adults in the UK

Kidney infection
Learn about kidney infection symptoms and treatments

Kidney stones
Learn about kidney stones symptoms and treatments


Learn about labyrinthitis symptoms and treatments

Lactose intolerance
Learn about lactose intolerance symptoms and treatments

Langerhans cell histiocytosis
Information is about a condition called Langerhans cell histiocytosis which is classed as a type of cancer

Laryngeal (larynx) cancer
Learn about laryngeal cancer which develops in the larynx (voice box)

Learn about laryngitis symptoms and treatments

Leg cramps
Learn about the possible causes of leg cramps and their treatment

Lichen planus
Learn about lichen planus symptoms and treatments

Liver cancer
Learn about symptoms and treatments of primary cancer of the liver

Liver disease
Learn about liver disease types and causes

Liver tumours
Information on liver tumours in children including symptoms and treatments

Loss of libido
Learn what causes a loss of libido and how to treat it

Lung cancer
Learn about the symptoms and treatments of lung cancer, one of the most common cancer types in the UK

Learn about lupus symptoms and treatments

Lyme disease
Learn about Lyme disease symptoms and treatments

Learn about lymphoedema symptoms and treatments


Learn about malaria symptoms and treatments

Malignant brain tumour (cancerous)
Learn about the symptoms and treatments of malignant brain tumours

Learn about malnutrition symptoms and treatments

Learn about the symptoms of measles and how it can be treated

Learn about meningitis symptoms and treatments

Learn about menopause symptoms and treatment

Learn about mesothelioma, a type of cancer that develops in the outer lining of some of the body’s organs

Middle ear infection (otitis media)
Learn about middle ear infection symptoms and treatments

Learn about what can cause migraines and its treatments

Learn about miscarriage symptoms and recovery

Motor neurone disease (MND)
Learn about motor neurone disease (MND)

Mouth cancer
Learn about the symptoms and treatments of mouth cancer, also known as oral cancer

Mouth ulcer
Learn about mouth ulcer symptoms and treatments

Multiple myeloma
Learn about the symptoms and treatments of multiple myeloma, a type of bone cancer

Multiple sclerosis (MS)
Learn about multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms and treatments

Learn about mumps symptoms and treatments

Meniere’s disease
Learn about Ménière’s disease symptoms and treatments


Nasal and sinus cancer
Learn about symptoms and treatments of cancer of the nasal cavity and sinuses

Nasopharyngeal cancer
Learn about nasopharyngeal cancer, a rare type that affects a part of the throat, nose and mouth

Learn about neuroblastoma, a rare cancer that mostly affects children and young people

Neuroblastoma: Children
Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumour in children that occurs outside of the brain and makes up 8% of the total number of children’s cancers.

Neuroendocrine tumours
Learn about symptoms and treatments of neuroendocrine tumours, a wide-ranging and rare group of tumours

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
Learn about non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Learn about non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a cancer that can develop in part of the circulatory system

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Children
Information on non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a type of blood cancer that can be found in children

Learn about norovirus symptoms and treatments

Learn about nosebleed causes and treatments


Learn about obesity causes and treatments

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
Learn about obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms and treatments

Obstructive sleep apnoea
Learn about obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) symptoms and treatments

Oesophageal cancer
Learn about oesophageal cancer, a cancer that can develop in the tube that carries food from the throat to the stomach

Oral thrush in adults
Learn about oral thrush symptoms and treatments

Learn about osteoarthritis symptoms and treatments

Learn about osteoporosis symptoms and treatments

Information on symptoms and treatments of osteosarcoma, a type of bone cancer

Otitis externa
Learn about otitis externa symptoms and treatments

Ovarian cancer
Learn about ovarian cancer, the fifth most common cancer among women

Ovarian cancer: Teenagers and young adults
Information on cancer of the ovaries, part of the female reproductive system

Ovarian cyst
Learn about ovarian cyst symptoms and treatments

Overactive thyroid
Learn about overactive thyroid symptoms and treatments


Paget’s disease of the nipple
Learn about Paget’s disease of the nipple, a rare type of breast cancer

Pancreatic cancer
Learn about cancer of the pancreas, a large gland that’s part of the digestive system

Panic disorder
Learn about panic disorder symptoms and treatments

Parkinson’s disease
Learn about Parkinson’s disease symptoms and treatments

Pelvic organ prolapse
Learn about pelvic organ prolapse symptoms and treatments

Penile cancer
Learn about penile cancer, a rare type of cancer that occurs on the skin or tissue of the penis.

Peripheral neuropathy
Learn about peripheral neuropathy symptoms and treatments

Personality disorder
Learn about personality disorder symptoms and treatments

Learn about pleurisy symptoms and treatments

Learn about pneumonia symptoms and treatments

Polymyalgia rheumatica
Learn about polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) symptoms and treatments

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Learn about post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and treatments

Postnatal depression
Learn about postnatal depression symptoms and treatment

Pregnancy and baby
Everything you want to know about getting pregnant, being pregnant or caring for your new baby

Pressure ulcers
Learn about pressure ulcers (bedsores)

Prostate cancer
Learn about prostate cancer, the most common cancer in men in the UK

Learn about psoriasis symptoms and treatments

Psoriatic arthritis
Learn more about psoriatic arthritis

Learn about psychosis symptoms and treatments


Rare tumours
Childhood cancers are rare but there are a number of very rare types

Raynaud’s phenomenon
Learn about Raynaud’s phenomenon symptoms and treatments

Reactive arthritis
Learn about reactive arthritis symptoms and treatments

Restless legs syndrome
Learn about restless legs syndrome symptoms and treatments

Learn about retinoblastoma, a rare type of eye cancer that can affect young children

Retinoblastoma: Children
Informtaion on retinoblastoma, an uncommon eye cancer that usually affects children under five

Information on rhabdomyosarcoma, a type of soft tissue tumour

Rheumatoid arthritis
Learn about rheumatoid arthritis symptoms and treatments

Ringworm and other fungal infections
Learn about ringworm symptoms and treatments

Learn about rosacea symptoms and treatments


Learn about scabies symptoms and treatment

Scarlet fever
Learn about scarlet fever symptoms and treatments

Learn about schizophrenia symptoms and treatments

Learn about scoliosis symptoms and treatments

Septic shock
Learn about septic shock symptoms and treatment

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
Learn about sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

Learn about shingles symptoms and treatments

Shortness of breath
Learn about the causes of shortness of breath and when to see a doctor

Sickle cell disease
Learn about the different types and symptoms of sickle cell disease

Learn about sinusitis symptoms and treatments

Sjogren’s syndrome
Learn about Sjögren’s syndrome symptoms and treatments

Skin cancer (melanoma)
Learn about melanoma, a type of skin cancer that can spread to other organs in the body

Skin cancer (non-melanoma)
Learn about non-melanoma skin cancer which can develop in the upper layers of skin

Slapped cheek syndrome
Learn about slapped cheek syndrome symptoms and treatments

Soft tissue sarcomas
Soft tissue sarcomas can develop in tissue that surrounds other organs and body structures

Soft tissue sarcomas: Teenagers and young adults
Information including the symptoms and treatments of the different types of soft tissue sarcoma

Sore throat
Learn about sore throat causes and treatments

Spleen problems and spleen removal
Problems with the spleen and living well without a spleen

Learn about stillbirth causes and the support available

Stomach ache and abdominal pain
Learn about stomach ache and abdominal pain

Stomach cancer
Learn about the symptoms, treatments and different types of stomach cancer

Stomach ulcer
Learn about stomach ulcer symptoms and treatments

Stress, anxiety and low mood
Advice dealing with low mood, anxiety, phobias, stress and where you can get help

Learn more about stroke signs, symptoms and treatment

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
Learn about sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

Learn about why people might attempt suicide and where to find help

Learn about sunburn and its treatment

Swollen glands
Swollen glands are usually caused by a minor infection, although sometimes can be more serious


Testicular cancer
Learn about testicular cancer, a less common type of cancer which tends to affect men between 15 and 49 years of age

Testicular cancer: Teenagers and young adults
Symptoms of testicular cancer and how it can be treated

Testicular lumps and swellings
Lumps and swellings in the testicles are relatively common, and can have a number of different causes

Learn about the causes of thirst

Learn about threadworms symptoms and treatments

Thrush in men
Learn about thrush symptoms and treatments

Thyroid cancer
Learn about thyroid cancer, a rare type of cancer that affects the thyroid gland located at the base of the neck

Thyroid cancer: Teenagers and young adults
Information on the symptoms and treatments of thyroid cancer

Learn about tinnitus symptoms and treatments

Learn about tonsilitis symptoms and treatments

Tooth decay
Learn about tooth decay symptoms and treatments

Learn about toothache causes, treatment and prevention

Transient ischaemic attack (TIA)
Learn about transient ischaemic attack symptoms and treatments

Trigeminal neuralgia
Learn about trigeminal neuralgia symptoms and treatments

Tuberculosis (TB)
Learn about tuberculosis (TB) symptoms and treatments

Type 1 diabetes
Learn about type 1 diabetes symptoms and treatments

Type 2 diabetes
Learn about type 2 diabetes symptoms and treatments


Ulcerative colitis
Learn about ulcerative colitis symptoms and treatments

Underactive thyroid
Learn about underactive thyroid symptoms and treatments

Urinary incontinence
Learn about urinary incontinence symptoms and treatments

Urinary tract infection (UTI)
Learn about urinary tract infection (UTI) symptoms and treatments

Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children
UTIs in children are fairly common and are usually treated with antibiotics

Urticaria (hives)
Learn more about Urticaria (hives)


Vaginal cancer
Learn about the symptoms and treatments of vaginal cancer, a rare type of cancer that can develop in a woman’s vagina

Vaginal thrush
Learn about vaginal thrush symptoms and treatments

Varicose eczema
Learn about varicose eczema symptoms and treatments

Varicose veins
Learn about varicose veins symptoms and treatments

Venous leg ulcer
Learn about leg ulcer symptoms and treatments

Learn about vertigo causes and treatment

Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia
Learn about vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia

Vomiting in adults
Learn about nausea and vomiting in adults, its potential causes and its treatments

Vulval cancer
Learn about vulval cancer, a rare cancer type that affects women


Warts and verrucas
Learn about warts symptoms and treatments

Whooping cough
Learn about whooping cough symptoms and treatments

Wilms’ tumour
Learn more about Wilm’s tumour, a type of kidney cancer in children

Womb (uterus) cancer
Learn about womb (uterus) cancer, also called uterine cancer and endometrial cancer


Yellow fever
Learn about yellow fever symptoms and treatments